Mouse Isotype Controls

Mouse isotype controls are essential tools in immunological research using mouse models. These controls play a critical role in distinguishing specific antibody binding from non-specific background signals, ensuring the accuracy and reliability of experimental data.

By utilizing mouse isotype controls, researchers can effectively evaluate the specificity of their observations, establish appropriate gating strategies, and validate the specificity of immune responses. When using mouse isotype controls you should always make sure that the isotype and subtype are exactly the same as your experimental antibody.

In mice, there are five major classes of immunoglobulins, each with distinct structural and functional characteristics. These classes are IgM, IgD, IgG, IgA, and IgE. Here is an overview of these mouse immunoglobulin classes:


IgM is the first antibody produced during an immune response and plays a crucial role in the early stages of defense against pathogens. It exists as a pentamer, composed of five individual IgM monomers held together by a J chain (joining chain). The pentameric structure allows IgM to efficiently bind to multiple antigens, facilitating their neutralization or elimination.’

ichorbio sells one Mouse IgM isotype control for in vivo use:


IgD is primarily expressed on the surface of mature B cells. Its function is not fully understood, but it is believed to participate in the regulation of B cell activation and immune response. IgD is structurally similar to IgM, with a monomeric form consisting of two heavy chains and two light chains.


IgG is the most abundant immunoglobulin class in the circulation and provides long-term protection against pathogens. It is structurally composed of two heavy chains and two light chains. IgG antibodies can cross the placenta, providing passive immunity to newborns. They can also activate various immune mechanisms, such as complement activation and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

ichorbio sells six Mouse IgG isotype controls for in vivo use.


IgA is primarily found in mucosal secretions, such as saliva, tears, and mucous membranes of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. It can exist in a monomeric form in the bloodstream or as a dimeric form, known as secretory IgA, in secretions. IgA provides localized immune protection at mucosal surfaces and helps prevent pathogen colonization and invasion.


IgE is involved in allergic and hypersensitivity reactions. It triggers the release of histamine and other mediators from mast cells and basophils, leading to the symptoms associated with allergies. IgE is present in low concentrations in the blood. It has a structure similar to IgG, with two heavy chains and two light chains.

These different classes of mouse immunoglobulins play diverse roles in the immune response, providing the immune system with a robust defense mechanism against a wide range of pathogens and antigens.