Human Isotype Controls


Isotype controls are crucial tools in immunological research to ensure the specificity and accuracy of antibody-based assays. In the context of human studies, human immunoglobulins can be employed as isotype controls to assess non-specific binding and background noise. These isotype controls, which match the isotype of the test antibody but lack specificity for the target antigen, enable researchers to distinguish between specific and non-specific binding events, thus aiding in the interpretation of experimental results.


Isotype controls serve as critical references for evaluating the specificity of antibody binding and for establishing appropriate gating strategies in various immunological assays, such as flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA. By comparing the signal obtained with the test antibody to that of the corresponding isotype control, researchers can discern true positive signals from background noise and accurately determine the presence or absence of specific immune responses.

The selection of appropriate human immunoglobulin isotype controls depends on the specific class (e.g., IgG, IgM, IgA, etc.) and subclass (e.g., IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4) of the test antibody. Matching the isotype control to the test antibody ensures comparable binding characteristics, including Fc receptor interactions and non-specific interactions, allowing for accurate assessments of background levels.

Human IgG1 Isotype Controls

Human IgG2 Isotype Controls


Human IgG3 Isotype Controls


Human IgG4 Isotype Controls